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Research Guides

Citation Styles & Tools: Example Citations

Quick help on citing sources and tools for storing and organizing sources.

Example Citations: Books

Basic form

Note:

Firstname Lastname,Title of Book: Subtitle of Book (Location: Publisher, Year): xx-xx.

Bibliography Entry:

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Location: Publisher, Year.

One author

Note:

1. Becky Pettit, Invisible Men: Mass Incarceration and the Myth of Black Progress (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2012), 76-83.

Duplicate Note:

2. Pettit, Invisible Men, 126.

Bibliography Entry:

Pettit, Becky. Invisible Men: Mass Incarceration and the Myth of Black Progress. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2012.

More than one author (Note: only the first name listed is inverted in the bibliography)

Note

1. Mary E. Pattillo, David F. Weiman, and Bruce Western, Imprisoning America: The Social Effects of Mass Incarceration (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2004), 34.

Duplicate Note

2. Pattillo, Weiman, and Western, Imprisoning America, 68-71.

Bibliography Entry 

Pattillo, Mary E., David F. Weiman, and Bruce Western. Imprisoning America: The Social Effects of Mass Incarceration. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2004.

For a book with four or more authors, list all authors in the bibliography entry. However, in the note, cite only the name of the first listed author, followed by et al. Word order and punctuation are the same as for two or three authors.

Article/chapter in an edited book

Note

1. Sharon Rosenberg, "Neither Forgotten Nor Fully Remembered: Tracing an Ambivalent Public Memory on the Tenth Anniversary of the Montreal Massacre," in Killing Women: The Visual Culture of Gender and Violence, ed. Susan Lord and Annette Burfoot (Waterloo, ON: Wilfred Laurier University Press, 2006), 33.

Duplicate Note

2. Rosenberg, "Neither Forgotten," 41.

Bibliography Entry

Rosenberg, Sharon. "Neither Forgotten Nor Fully Remembered: Tracing an Ambivalent Public Memory on the Tenth Anniversary of the Montreal Massacre." In Killing Women: The Visual Culture of Gender and Violence, edited by Susan Lord and Annette Burfoot, 21-46. Waterloo, ON: Wilfred Laurier University Press, 2006.

Not finding the example citation you're looking for? Check out the Chicago Guide for more examples!

Example Citations: Other Materials

Lecture notes

Note:

1. Sarah Quinn, "The Sociology of Wall Street Trading" (class lecture, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, February 19, 2013).

Duplicate Note:

2. Quinn, "Wall Street Trading."

Bibliography:

Quinn, Sarah. "The Sociology of Wall Street Trading." Class lecture, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, February 19, 2013.

Thesis or dissertation

Note:

1. Amy E. Singer, “Under the Radar: The Subversive Work of American Children's Books, 1930-1980” (PhD diss., University of Washington, 2005).

Duplicate Note:

2. Singer, "Under the Radar," 127-38.

Bibliography Entry:

Singer, Amy E. “Under the Radar: The Subversive Work of American Children's Books, 1930-1980.” PhD diss., University of Washington, 2005.

Unpublished interviews & personal communications

Unpublished interviews and personal communications (conversations, emails, letters, etc.) may be cited in running text (“In an email to the author on July 23, 2014, Jane Smith revealed . . .”) instead of in notes, and they are rarely listed in the bibliography. The following examples show a more formal citation.

General format

Note:

1. Interviewee/Email Sender First Name/Initial Surname, Interview by Name of Interviewer, Place and Date of Interview.

Duplicate Note:

Generally the same as the full note. Can list Interviewee/Email Sender by Surname only.

Bibliography:

Typically no bibliography entry required.

Examples:

1. Jane Smith, email message to author, July 23, 2014.

8. Jane Smith, interview by John Doe, Seattle, WA, July 23, 2014.

Not finding the example citation you're looking for? Check out the Chicago Guide for more examples!

Example Citations: Articles

Basic form

Note:

Firstname Lastname, "Title of Article: Subtitle of Article," Title of Journal volume, issue (year): xx, doi:10.xxxxxxxxx.

Bibliography Entry:

Lastname, Firstname. "Title of Article: Subtitle of Article." Title of Journal volume, issue (year): xx-xx. doi:10.xxxxxxxxx.

Print journal article

Note Style:
1. Joshua I. Weinstein, "The Market in Plato’s Republic," Classical Philology 104, no.2 (2009): 440.

Duplicate Note:
2. Weinstein, "Plato’s Republic," 452–53.

Bibliography Entry:
Weinstein, Joshua I. "The Market in Plato’s Republic." Classical Philology 104, no. 2 (2009): 439–58.

Electronic journal article with DOI

Note

1. David Anderson and Mykol Hamilton, "Gender Role Stereotyping of Parents in Children's Picture Books: The Invisible Father," Sex Roles 52, no. 3-4 (2005): 147-48, doi:10.1007/s11199-005-1290-8.

Duplicate Note

2. Anderson and Hamilton, "Gender Role Stereotyping," 149.

Bibliography Entry

Anderson, David, and Mykol Hamilton. "Gender Role Stereotyping of Parents in Children's Picture Books: The Invisible Father." Sex Roles 52, no. 3-4 (2005): 145-151. doi:10.1007/s11199-005-1290-8.

Electronic journal article, no DOI (use URL instead)

Note:

Stephanie M. Carlson and Marjorie Taylor, "Imaginary Companions and Impersonated Characters: Sex Differences in Children's Fantasy Play," Merrill-Palmer Quarterly: Journal of Developmental Psychology 51, no. 1 (2005): 111, http://www.jstor.org/stable/23096051.

Duplicate Note:

2. Carlson and Taylor, "Imaginary Companions," 107.

Bibliography Entry:

Carlson, Stephanie M., and Marjorie Taylor.  "Imaginary Companions and Impersonated Characters: Sex Differences in Children's Fantasy Play." Merrill-Palmer Quarterly: Journal of Developmental Psychology 51, no. 1 (2005): 93-118. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23096051.

Print magazine article

Note:

1. Jo Ann Beard, "The Fourth State of Matter," New Yorker, June 24, 1996, 87.

Duplicate Note:

2. Beard, "Fourth State of Matter," 83.

Bibliography Entry:

Beard, Jo Ann. "The Fourth State of Matter." New Yorker, June 24, 1996, 80-91.

Online magazine or newspaper article

Note:

1. Caitlin Flanagan, "The Dark Power of Fraternities," The Atlantic, February 19, 2014, http://www.theatlantic.com/features/archive/2014/02/the-dark-power-of-fraternities/357580/.

Duplicate Note:

2. Flanagan, "Dark Power."

Bibliography Entry:

Flanagan, Caitlin. "The Dark Power of Fraternities." The Atlantic, February 19, 2014. http://www.theatlantic.com/features/archive/2014/02/the-dark-power-of-fraternities/357580/.

Not finding the example citation you're looking for? Check out the Chicago Guide for more examples!

Example Citations: Web sites and Blog entries

A citation to web site content can often be limited to a mention in the text: "According to ArtsBeat columnist Allan Kozinn, a new biography about musician Nick Drake provides. . ." If a more formal citation is necessary, follow the elements in the examples below.

Because web content is subject to change, include an access date or, if available, a date that the site was last modified. In the absence of a date of publication, use the access date or last-modified date as the basis of the citation. If no author is listed, use the organization and begin the entry with the web page title.

Web site content

Note:

1. University of Washington Libraries, "Camp Harmony Exhibit," accessed July 23, 2014, http://www.lib.washington.edu/specialcollections/collections/exhibits/harmony/exhibit.

Duplicate Note:

2. University of Washington Libraries, "Camp Harmony Exhibit."

Bibliography Entry:

University of Washington Libraries. "Camp Harmony Exhibit." Accessed July 23, 2014. http://www.lib.washington.edu/specialcollections/collections/exhibits/harmony/exhibit.

Blog entry

Note:

1. Allan Kozinn, “Book Offers a New Overview of Nick Drake,” ArtsBeat (blog), New York Times, November 7, 2014, http://nyti.ms/1pxKWcY.

Duplicate Note:

2. Kozinn, “Book Offers.”

Bibliography Entry:

Citations of blog entries are generally kept only in the notes. A frequently cited blog, however, may be included in the bibliography:

 Kozinn, Allan. "Book Offers a New Overview of Nick Drake," ArtsBeat (blog). November 7, 2014. http://nyti.ms/1pxKWcY.

Not finding the example citation you're looking for? Check out the Chicago Guide for more examples!