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Research Guides

U.S. Decennial Census: 1860

Decade by decade information about how to access and use U.S. Census reports.

About the 1860 census


  • 8th decennial census
  • US population: 31,443,321
  • Washington Territory population: 11,594

Questions asked

Number of dwelling home in order of visitation by the enumerator, Number of family in order of visitation by the enumerator, Name, Age, Sex, Color, Enumerators could mark "W" for Whites, "B" for Blacks, or "M" for Mulattos, Profession, Occupation, or Trade of each person, male and female, over 15 years of age, Value of person's real estate, Value of person's personal estate, Place of birth, Enumerator could list the state, territory, or country of the person's birth, Was the person was married within the last year?, Did the person attend school within the last year?, If the person was over 20 years of age, could he not read or write?, Was the person deaf and dumb, blind, idiotic, pauper, or convict?

For more information:



For more information:

  • Map Guide to the U.S. Federal Censuses, 1790 - 1920 (GovPub Reference HA195 .T46 1987)


Original printed reports (& online equivalents)

Print Versions in the Library

Online Versions

Population of the United States in 1860
[HA201 1860a]

From the Census Bureau

From Newsbank

From Univ. of Michigan

Agriculture of the United States in 1860
[HA201 1860aa]

From the Census Bureau

From Newsbank

From Univ. of Michigan

Manufactures of the United States in 1860
[HA201 1860ab, 317.3 Un31ma 1860]

From the Census Bureau

From Newsbank

From Univ. of Michigan

Statistics of the United States in 1860

[HA201 1860ac]

From the Census Bureau

Preliminary report on the Eighth Census, 1860

[HA201 1860 .P74 1862a, Y3.C 49/2:2 UN 3]

From the Census Bureau

From Newsbank

From Univ. of Michigan

Map showing, in five degrees of density, the distribution, within the territory east of the 100th Meridian, of the population of the United States, (excluding Indians not taxed) [electronic resource] : compiled from the returns of population at the Eighth census of the United States

From David Rumsey Collection

Multi-year census compilations (compare across years)

These tend to include statistics for large geographic areas (eg states) but can be very useful when comparing statistics over time

See: list of all census compilations

Guides and Documentation

Encyclopedia of the U.S. Census.                     (GovPub Reference HA 37 .U55 C66 2000)
See the entry under "decennial census". Includes bibliography for each census.

See: list of all Guides and Documentation

Raw Data Files

These are computer files intended to be loaded into statistical sofware for analysis and creating your own tables. In some cases these files can be used with spreadsheet software as well.

See: list of raw data sources

Population Schedules

Census population schedules (or "name schedules" or "manuscript census") are copies of the original questionnaires collected during each decennial census. They list the individual names and family information of the people enumerated. Unlike the statistics published soon after the census, the population schedules remain confidential for 72 years. 1930 is the most recent population schedule available.


Need help?  Call the Government Publications, Maps, Microforms & Newspapers help desk at (206) 543-4164 during desk hours.  You can also consult the Ask Us! reference service (24/7).