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*Cite and Analyze Business Information: Personal Communications (such as e-mail and interviews)

Citing and Analyzing Information tools for business students.

Personal Communications & Recorded Interviews

Personal Communications (e.g., interviews, emails):

When personal communications such as interviews or emails are not recoverable by readers, they are not included in the references unless the instructor requires it. However, they must be cited intext. For more information, see APA style manual (6th edition) p. 179 and pp. 213-215.

Recorded Interviews (e.g., audio or video) :

Citation Example:

Nordstrom, E. (2014, March 20). UW Bothell Icons of Retail Conversation with Erik Nordstrom. (Spector R., Interviewer) [Video]. Retrieved from http://youtu.be/taAWMIRsEx4

NOTE:  Interviews in publications are cited according to the print or online journal format.


NOTE: If you have questions, please
(1) check with the UWB Writing and Communication Center or
(2) consult the APA website or

(3) consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (See pages 268-281 on Electronic Media).

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