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*Cite and Analyze Business Information: Citation FAQ & Notes

Citing and Analyzing Information tools for business students.

Citation Notes

Compilation of special notes when using APA.

You can click on the resource type to get the full formatting details.

Resource Type
Articles from Journal Website If DOI is not available, give the exact URL or the home page URL for the journal, newsletter, or magazine in the reference. Use format: Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxxx
No retrieval date is necessary because the final version of the article is being referenced.
Company Information from Databases Retrieval Date is included because the content referenced can change or be updated.
Journal Articles from  Databases Since some online articles do not indicate page numbers, you will not always be able to include them in your citation.
No retrieval date is necessary for journal articles or books.
Newspaper Articles & Newswires from Databases There may not be a page number.
Online Abstract If you are unable to obtain the full article, instructors may allow use of information from an abstract; however, the citation must indicate the information came from an abstract.  Information from abstracts should not be used for material being published.
SimplyMap Since we have two references with similar titles (Head of household...), we must use a longer title in the Intext Citation so the reader can identify the correct source. However, you do not need to use the whole title length, but just enough for the reader to identify between reports in the reference list.
Websites If there will be more then one reference to a company web page for different documents, identify the document either in the text of the paper or the intext citation, e.g., (Nike, Inc., 2002 Annual Report).
Retrieval Date is only needed when content is changable or can be updated. Therefore, journal, newsletter, newspaper, or magazine articles and books do not need retrieval dates.
If no date is given on the website for content, use [n.d.], which stands for "no date."


For the most part, the APA citation is made up of some basic components -- author name, publication date, item title, resource title, and page numbers for in-text citations.  How you format these components is dependent upon the resource type. 


  • What if I don't have all the components of a citation?

The main goal is that your reader is able to find the resource. Put in the information you have and any other information that may be necessary for the reader to retrieve the resource.


  • What if my resource doesn't fall into one resource type/category?

Choose the category that fits best and follow the APA formatting as best you can, providing the main citation components and other necessary details. Once again, the goal is that the reader will be able to find the resource.


  • What if there is no date?

Use [n.d.] in place of the date, which stands for no date.  Note the square brackets used.


  • What if there is no author?

An author can be a person or a company/group.  If there is no author, move the item title to the position of the author within the citation.

Example:   Article title. (Date). Resource name.    

(Be sure to include all other required components/formatting)


  • What if there are no page numbers?

If you paraphrase content, your intext citation does not require page numbers. If you directly quote content, a page number is required.  If the resource doesn't have a page number, count the paragraphs and note the paragraph of the reference. 

Example:  "Quoted statement from author" (Author, Year, para. #).


  • How should my APA bibliography list be formatted?

Check with your instructor on his/her preferences.  APA format is typically double-spaced, 12 point, Times New Roman font. The bibliography uses a hanging indent. Microsoft Word has a hanging indent function.


The first line is a full line across the page.

The second and remaining lines are

indented, including any URLS.


  • How do I turn on hanging indent in MS Word?

This is dependent on the version.  In MS Word 2007:

  1. Go to Page Layout  (3rd tab along the top menu)
  2. Go to the Paragraph section  (4th section in the ribbon bar)
  3. Click on the little arrow to the right of the word Paragraph
  4. A box will pop up. Under the Indentation section, go to Special:
  5. Click on Hanging. This will set the indent spacing.
  6. Select OK.


  • How do I manage a very long URL in my bibliography list?

If your URL is very long and wraps multiple lines in your bibliography, you may need to break the URL to make it format "pretty". If you do this, place the break in a logical location if possible. You can do this by putting a hard return (Enter) where you want the break, then indenting the next line.







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