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University of Washington Health Sciences Library

Animal Welfare & Laboratory Animal Alternatives (IACUC Searches)

Conducting literature searches required by the Animal Welfare Act and the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC). Identifying ways to reduce pain or distress in laboratory animals.

Steps for Focusing on Refinement and Reduction Concepts

1. Search for articles describing what you are studying in your protocol.

2. Search for articles discussing improved models and/or potential alternatives to painful or distressful procedures.

3. Combine the two searches with AND.

Search Example

Search for humane treatment of rats being restrained for blood draws.

Search #1 concepts: rats and blood draws.

(rat OR rats OR rattus) AND ("blood draw" OR "blood collection" OR "blood sampling" OR "blood sample" OR "blood specimen")

Search #2 concepts: restraint procedures or animal distress

restrain* OR immobiliz* OR immobilis* OR restrict* OR distress* OR handling OR humane

Combine the two searches using AND.

(rat OR rats OR rattus) AND ("blood draw" OR "blood collection" OR "blood sampling" OR "blood sample" OR "blood specimen") AND (restrain* OR immobiliz* OR immobilis* OR restrict* OR distress* OR handling OR humane)


Notes:

In PubMed, go to the Advanced search page to combine the two searches.

You can also type #1 AND #2 to combine search #1 AND search #2.

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