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Japanese Law A-Z

Japanese Law-Related Resources by Topic or Type (A-Z)

Japanese Era Names

Japanese laws, cases and other resources are often dated using years based on the Japanese calendar. The current era is Heisei (平成), which began in 1988; 2016 is Heisei 28.

Japanese years can be converted to Western years as follows:

  • Heisei [平成] years: Add 88 to the Heisei year.
    Examples: Heisei 2=1990, Heisei 20=2008.
  • Shōwa [昭和]years: Add 25 to the Shōwa year.
    Examples: Shōwa 5=1930, Shōwa 22=1947, Shōwa 60=1985.
  • Taishō [大正] years: Add 11 to the Taishō year.
    Examples: Taishō 2=1913, Taishō 10=1921
  • Meiji [明治] years: Add 67 to the Meiji year.
    Examples: Meiji 10=1877, Meiji 35=1902, Meiji 40=1907

Japanese Government

Judges and Justices