Plants have nurtured Native communities' physical, spiritual, and social well-being for centuries, while people reciprocated by caring for plants not only as integral actors embedded in a wider ecosystem, but also as treasured children and cherished ancestors. With the encroachment of non-Native peoples, however, the web of relationships between people, plants, and the landscape came under threat, including indigenous seeds. Throughout these upheavals, some Native individuals fought to retain knowledge and to keep valued seeds viable by planting them. This paper explores how these relationships with seeds have been disrupted, and, as a means of repairing them today, weighs the potential of repatriating seeds held in banks. I argue that a repatriation initiative should consider the perspectives of Native peoples who first bred these seeds, work to ease their access to them, and articulate how to care for them
The article discusses how French colonial authorities used trade in peanuts and gum to replace the slave trade in Senegal following its abolition. After regaining control of Senegal, French authorities launched failed efforts to promote agriculture as a form of economic adaptation to the loss of the slave trade. The role of the metis community and Muslim merchants in supporting the colony's trade is discussed. The Senegalese islands of Saint-Louis and Gorée Island also engaged in local trade in gold, hides and grain. The political participation of natives and religious and cultural pluralism in the colony are noted.