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University of Washington Health Sciences Library

Clinical Pharmacy: Evidence-Based Practice Information Sources



"Evidence based medicine is the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. The practice of evidence based medicine means integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available external clinical evidence from systematic research."

Sackett DL, Rosenberg WM, Gray JA, Haynes RB, Richardson WS. Evidence based medicine: what it is and what it isn't. Bmj. [Editorial]. 1996 Jan 13;312(7023):71-2. Accessed 29 June 2011. Available at


Comprehensive package of teaching and learning materials centered on evidence-based medicine.  Includes Users’ Guides to the Medical Literature, powerpoint slides for lectures, JAMA Rational Clinical Examination articles, textbooks on appraising the literature, calculators, audio clips of focused topics.

Using this Guide

Categories of Evidence

Levels of Evidence:

Level 1 to Level 5 with Level 1 being the strongest level of evidence


Categories of Information Sources 

Levels of evidence and synthesis:

from systematic reviews and studies at the top to texts with expert opinion at the bottom

Levels of usability at point of care: 6S Model

1. Systems (computerized decision support)

2. Summaries (guidelines, evidence based texts)

3. Synopses of syntheses (summaries of systematic reviews)

4. Syntheses or systematic reviews

5. Summaries of studies (abstracts)

6. Studies

Modified 6S Model to account for variability in levels of evidence within categories (Murad 2016)


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