This page is part of a guide with readings about issues of race, class, gender, sexuality, and disability in traditional first-year courses.
The first-year Criminal Law course focuses on substantive law, rather than criminal procedure; this guide does as well. Still, it has a few entries on procedural topics. The guide is very selective because the literature in this area is vast.
David Cole, Two Systems of Criminal Justice, in The Politics of Law: A Progressive Critique, 410-433 (David Kairys ed., 3d ed. 1998), catalog record.
Angela J. Davis, Prosecution and Race: The Power and Privilege of Discretion, 67 Fordham L. Rev. 13-68 (1998), HeinOnline
Henry F. Fradella, Stephen S. Owen & Tod W. Burke, Integrating Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Issues into the Undergraduate Criminal Justice Curriculum, 20 J. Crim. J. Educ. 127-156 (2009), HeinOnline
Amy H. Kastely, Out of the Whiteness: On Raced Codes and White Race Consciousness in Some Tort, Criminal, and Contract Law, 63 U. Cin. L. Rev. 269-315 (1994), HeinOnline
Melissa Morgan, Teaching Gender as a Core Value: The Softer Side of Criminal Law, 36 Okla. City U. L. Rev. 525-29 (2011), HeinOnline.
Various Authors, Race Trials Symposium, 91 N.C. L. Rev. No. 5 (June 2013), HeinOnline. Includes:
Bide Akande, Implicit Bias and Clients: An Overview, 18 Com. & Bus. Litig. 14-19 (2016), HeinOnline
Fatima E. Marouf, Implicit Bias and Immigration Courts, 32 Immigr. & Nat'lity L. Rev. 775-808 (2011), HeinOnline
Katherine Judson, Bias, Subjectivity, and Wrongful Convictions, 50 U. Mich. J.L. Reform 779-794 (2017), HeinOnline
Laura R. McNeal, Managing Our Blind Spot: The Role of Bias in the School-to-Prison Pipeline, 48 Ariz. St. L.J. 283-312 (2016), HeinOnline
Richard H. McAdams, Present Bias and Criminal Law, 2011 U. Ill. L. Rev. 1607-632 (2011), HeinOnline
Note: The first-year course addresses substantive criminal law rather than criminal procedure. So this list also focuses on substantive criminal law, but it does include some criminal procedure materials.
Drug Policy, 131 Harv. L. Rev. 918-933 (2018), HeinOnline
David C. Baldus et al., McCleskey v. Kemp (1987): Denial, Avoidance, and the Legitimization of Racial Discrimination in the Administration of the Death Penalty, in Death Penalty Stories 229-275 (John H. Blume & Jordan M. Steiker eds., 2009), Reference Area KF9227.C2 D43 2009
Paul Butler, Racially Based Jury Nullification: Black Power in the Criminal Justice System, 105 Yale L.J. 677-725 (1995), HeinOnline, excerpted in Critical Race Theory: The cutting Edge 194-203 (Richard Delgado & Jean Stefancic eds., 2d ed. 2000), Classified Stacks KF4755.C75 2000
Sheri Lynn Johnson, Confessions, Criminals and Community, 26 Harv. C.R.-C.L. L. Rev. 327-411 (1991), HeinOnline
Tracey Maclin, Race and the Fourth Amendment, 51 Vand. L. Rev. 333-393 (1998), HeinOnline
Cynthia Kwei Yung Lee, Race and Self-Defense: Toward a Normative Conception of Reasonableness, 81 Minn. L. Rev. 367-500 (1996), HeinOnline, excerpted in Critical Race Theory: The Cutting Edge 204-210 (Richard Delgado & Jean Stefancic eds., 2d ed. 2000), Classified Stacks KF4755.C75 2000
Elizabeth Schneider, Battered Women Who Kill Their Abusers in Legal Responses to Domestic Violence, 106 Harv. L. Rev. 1574-1597 (1993), HeinOnline
Michael A. Smyth, Queers and Provocateurs: Hegemony, Ideology and the "Homosexual Advance" Defense, 40 Law & Soc'y Rev. 903-930 (2006), FindArticles.com (free), HeinOnline, LexisNexis, Westlaw
Susan S. Kuo, Culture Clash: Teaching Cultural Defenses in the Criminal Law Classroom, 48 St. Louis L.J. 1297-1311 (2004), HeinOnline
Dania Bardavid et al., Domestic Violence, 17 Geo. J. Gender & L. 211-246 (2016), HeinOnline
Farrah Champagne, Prosecuting Domestic Violence Cases,16 Crim. Litig. 2-6 (2015), HeinOnline
Leigh Goodmark, Should Domestic Violence Be Decriminalized?, 40 Harv. Women's L.J. 53-114 (2017), HeinOnline
Hilly McGahan & Brandi Ries, Understanding Domestic Violence, 40 Mont. Law. 14-16 (2015), HeinOnline
Elizabeth M. Schneider, Battered Women and Feminist Lawmaking, 23 Women's Rts. L. Rep. 243-246 (2002), HeinOnline
Kathleen Waits, The Criminal Justice System's Response to Battering: Understanding the Problem, Forging the Solutions, 60 Wash. L. Rev. 267-330 (1985), HeinOnline (excerpted in Feminist Jurisprudence 188-209 (Patricia Smith ed. 1993), Classified Stack K644.Z9 F457 1993)
Conor Craft, Lessons from the Law: Designing a More Effective Policy for Suppressing Performance-Enhancing Drug use in Major League Baseball, 22 Sports Law. J. 27-78 (2015), HeinOnline
Dorothy E. Roberts, Punishing Drug Addicts Who Have Babies: Women of Color, Equality, and the Right of Privacy, 104 Harv. L. Rev. 1419-1482 (1991), HeinOnline
Dwight L. Greene, Abusive Prosecutors: Gender, Race & Class Discretion and the Prosecution of Drug-Addicted Mothers, 39 Buff. L. Ref. 737-802 (1991), HeinOnline
Dwight L. Greene, Drug Decriminalization: A Chorus in Need of Masterrap's Voice, 18 Hofstra L. Rev. 457-500 (1990), HeinOnline
John A. Powell; Eileen B. Hershenov, Hostage to the Drug War: The National Purse, the Constitution and the Black Community, 24 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 557-616 (1991), HeinOnline
Mark A. R. Kleiman, High Stakes: The Future of U.S. Drug Policy, 96 Foreign Aff. 130-139 (2017), HeinOnline
See also "Judges & Juries" section in Civil Procedure guide.
Jody Armour, Where Bias Lives in the Criminal Law and Its Processes: How Judges and Jurors Socially Construct Black Criminals, 45 Am. J. Crim. L. 203 (2018), HeinOnline
Jack Carnegie, Juvenile Justice, 78 Tex. B.J. 866, 869 (2015) HeinOnline
Kathryn Monahan et al., Juvenile Justice Policy and Practice: A Developmental Perspective, 44 Crime & Just. 577, 619 (2015) HeinOnline
Christopher Slobogin, Risk Assessment and Risk Management in Juvenile Justice, 27 Crim. Just. 10,18 (2013) HeinOnline
Vesla M. Weaver et al., The Great Decoupling: The Disconnection Between Criminal Offending and Experience of Arrest Across Two Cohorts, RSF, Feb. 2019, at 89. From the abstract:
Our study explores the arrest experiences of two generational cohorts—those entering adulthood on either side of a large shift in American policing. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979 and 1997), we find a stark increase in arrest odds among the later generation at every level of offending, suggesting a decoupling between contact with the justice system and criminal conduct. Furthermore, this decoupling became racially inflected. Blacks had a much higher probability of arrest at the start of the twenty-first century than both blacks of the generation prior and whites of the same generation. The criminal justice system, we argue, slipped from one in which arrest was low and strongly linked to offending to one where a substantial share of Americans experienced arrest without committing a crime.
David Weisburd, Does Hot Spots Policing Inevitably Lead to Unfair and Abusive Police Practices, or Can We Maximize Both Fairness and Effectiveness in the New Proactive Policing?, 2016 U. Chi. Legal F. 661-690 (2016), HeinOnline
Howard Spivak; Maureen McGough & Nancy Rodriguez, Using Science to Advance the Police Profession, 40 S. Ill. U. L.J. 457-474 (2016) HeinOnline
Franklin E. Zimring, How Many Killings by Police?, 2016 U. Chi. Legal F. 691-710 (2016), HeinOnline
Carlos Torres; Azadeh Shahshahani & Tye Tavaras, Indiscriminate Power: Racial Profiling and Surveillance since 9/11, 18 U. Pa. J.L. & Soc. Change 283-310 (2015), HeinOnline
David Harris, Racial Profiling, in Reforming Criminal Justice: Policing 117-145 (Erick Luna ed., 2017), SSRN
James Forman Jr., Racial Critiques of Mass Incarceration: Beyond the New Jim Crow, 87 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 21-69 (2012), HeinOnline
Peter DeAngelis, Racial Profiling and the Presumption of Innocence, 43 Neth. J. Legal. Phil. 43-58 (2014) HeinOnline
Michele Alexandre, Girls Gone Wild and Rape Law: Revising the Contractual Concept of Consent & (and) Ensuring an Unbiased Application of Reasonable Doubt When the Victim is Non-Traditional, 17 Am. U. J. Gender Soc. Pol'y & L. 41-80 (2009), HeinOnline
Joshua Dressler, Criminal Law, Moral Theory, and Feminism: Some Reflections on the Subject and on the Fun (and Value) of Courting Controversy, 48 St. Louis U. L.J. 1143-166 (2004), HeinOnline
Courtney Fraser, From Ladies First to Asking for it: Benevolent Sexism in the Maintenance of Rape Culture, 103 Calif. L. Rev. 141-203 (2015), HeinOnline
Susan Estrich, Teaching Rape Law, 102 Yale L. J. 509-20 (1992), HeinOnline
Aya Gruber, Rape, Feminism, and the War on Crime, 84 Wash. L. Rev. 581,-660 (2009), HeinOnline
Michelle Oberman, Getting Past Legal Analysis or How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love Teaching Rape, 45 Creighton L. Rev. 799 (2012), HeinOnline.
Lois Pineau, Date Rape: A Feminist Analysis, 8 Law & Phil. 217, 243 (1989), JSTOR, excerpted in Applications of Feminist Legal Theory to Women's Lives: Sex, Violence, Work, and Reproduction 484-494 (D. Kelly Weisberg ed., 1996), Classified Stacks K349.A67 1996
James J. Tomkovicz, On Teaching Rape: Reasons, Risks, and Rewards, 102 Yale L. J. 481-508 (1992), HeinOnline