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Research Guides

Near East: Romanization

Covers North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Turkey, east from the Levant throught Iran, and Central Asia, the languages of those regions, and Islam.

Romanization Tables

Encyclopaedia of Islam Romanization vs ALA Romanization for Arabic

Transliteration table for Brill Online and Library of Congress Arabic

Abbreviations: A = Arabic; T= Turkish; P = Persian

 

EI 3 - EWIC - EQ

EI 2

Library of Congress

Arabic

ء

ʾ (Unicode 02BE)

ʾ

ʾ

a, ā/Ā

a, ā

a, ā, Ā

b

b

b

پ

p

p

 

t

t

t

th

t̲h̲

th

A: j T: c

d̲j̲

j

چ

ç

č

 

kh

k̲h̲

kh

خو

khw

k̲h̲w

 

d

d

d

dh

d̲h̲

dh

r

r

r

z

z

z

ژ

zh

z̲h̲

 

s

s

s

sh

s̲h̲

sh

ʿ (Unicode O2BF)

ʿ

ʿ

gh

g̲h̲

gh

f

f

f

q

q

k

A: k; T: k, g [ğ]; ñ

k

l

l

l

m

m

m

n

n

n

h

h

h

ة

 a (at in idafah)

a (at in idafah)

h (t in idafah, i.e. always

preceded by “a”: ah, at )

w/v, ū/Ū, -uww

w/v, ū, -uww

w

ى/ﻱ

ī/Ī, -iyy-

ī/Ī, -iyy-

y

Short Vowels

a, e, I, I, o, ö, u, ü

a, e, I, I, o, ö, u, ü

a, i, o, u

Grammatical Points

 

No sun letters

Uses sun letters

No sun letters

 

Wa-l-kitab

Wa-al-kitab

Wa-al-kitab

 

b. bt. Except Ibn

Hazm

b. bt. Except Ibn

Hazm

Ibn, bint, except for North

African names:

Bin Khiddah

Alif Maqsura

ā

ā

ā

Nisba

adjectives

al-Miṣriyya

 

al-Miṣriyya

 

al-Miṣrīyah