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APA Style Guide

Information about APA citation style

Citation Examples

For more information on citing electronic resources, see the online 2012 APA Style Guide to Electronic References. Listed below are the most common examples.

Regardless of format, authors using and citing Internet sources should observe the following guidelines:

  1. In general, include the same elements, in the same order, as you would for a print source, and add as much electronic retrieval information as needed for others to locate this source.
  2. Direct readers as closely as possible to the information being cited; reference specific documents rather than home pages.
  3. When a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is available, include the DOI instead of the Web site address in the reference. See Where to Find a DOI.
  4. If no DOI assigned, provide the home page URL for the journal or book publisher.
  5. Do not insert a hyphen if you need to break the URL across lines. Instead break the URL before punctuation (one exception is http://)
  6. Do not include retrieval dates unless the material may change over time (e.g., wikis).  In other words, date of retrieval is no longer included for material that is the "version of record" / final version.
  7. In general, it is not necessary to include database information in the citation.
  8. When citing an entire website, it is sufficient to give the address of the site in just the text.
    Example: PBS KIDS is a wonderful interactive website for children.
Type of Entry
Reference List
Citation in Text
Electronic book retrieved from database
Karch, A.M. (2009). Lippincott's nursing drug guide. [Books@OVID version]. Retrieved from
(Karch, 2009)
Electronic chapter retrieved from online book
Marion, D.W. (2013). Diaphragmatic pacing. In D.S. Basow (Ed.), UpToDate. Retrieved from
(Marion, 2013)
Electronic journal article with 1-2 authors, retrieved from database, with DOI
Wilens, T.E., & Biederman, J. (2006). Alcohol, drugs, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A model for the study of addictions in youth. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 20, 580-588. doi:
(Wilens & Biederman, 2006)
Electronic journal article, 3-7 authors, retrieved from database, without DOI
Tang, P., Yuan, W., & Tseng, H. (2005). Clinical follow-up study on diabetes patients participating in a health management plan. Journal of Nursing Research, 13, 253-261. Retrieved from
(Tang, Yuan, & Tseng, 2005) first citation
(Tang et al., 2005) subsequent citations 3-5 authors
(Tang et al., 2005) 6+ authors first and subsequent citations
Electronic journal article with 1-2 authors, without DOI
Sillick, T.J., & Schutte, N.S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from
(Sillick & Schutte, 2006)
Electronic journal article with DOI, advance online publication
Von Ledebur, S.C. (2007). Optimizing knowledge transfer by new employees in companies. Knowledge Management Research & Practice. Advance online publication. doi:
(Von Ledebur, 2007)
Web page with no author listed
New child vaccine gets funding boost. (2001). Retrieved March 21, 2001, from
("New Child Vaccine," 2001)
Newspaper article online
Brody, J.E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times. Retrieved from
(Brody, 2007)
Government report online
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2003). Managing asthma: A guide for schools (NIH Publication No. 02-2650). Retrieved from
(U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [HHS], National Institutes of Health [NIH], National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [NHLBI], 2003) first citation
(HHS, NIH, NHLBI, 2003) subsequent citations