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APA Style Guide

Information about APA citation style


This is a guide to the most frequently used citation types, based on the Concise APA Handbook: APA 7th Edition, 2021. Check this resource for additional citation formats as well as the new online 2012 APA Style Guide to Electronic References.

Please note:

  • In a manuscript, APA requires that references be double-spaced and in a hanging indent format; the first line of each reference is set flush left and subsequent lines are indented.
  • Double-check any automatically generated citations for accuracy, such as from RefWorks, EndNote, CINAHL, etc.


New in APA 6th ed.:

  • DOI (digital object identifier) is needed for both electronic and print articles, if available.
  • For journal articles, include issue number only if each issue begins with page 1.
  • Give all authors names, up to and including 7 authors. When there are 8 or more authors, include the first 6 names, then insert 3 ellipses and add the last author's name.
  • For online references, date of retrieval is no longer included for material that is the "version of record" / final version.

APA Style Blog - tips, FAQs, and examples.