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Research Guides

Citing Business Information: Personal Communications (such as e-mail and interviews)

Personal Communications & Recorded Interviews

Personal Communications (e.g., interviews, emails):

When personal communications such as emails, text messages, social media, etc. are not recoverable by readers, they are not included in the references unless the instructor requires it. However, they must be cited intext. For more information, see APA style manual (7th edition)

Intext Citation Example: 

(A. Author, personal communication, January 5, 2021)

Published Interviews:

Citation Example:

Nordstrom, E. (2014, March 20). UW Bothell Icons of Retail Conversation with Erik Nordstrom. (Spector R., Interviewer) [Video].

NOTE:  Only published interviews need a formal citation. Research and personal interviews can follow under personal communications