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Detail from a 1809 cartoon, Napoleon and Pitt Observing Each Other
Citation & Writing Help
Historians generally use the Chicago Style format. For information to other citation formats see the Citing Sources guide.
Writing help is available in person and via zoom. You can schedule an appointment online.
Starting Points: Books & eBooks
See the eBook FAQ for directions to limit your search to ebooks only.
- By Topic - Type in the keywords that broadly describe your topic. For example: women france revolution history
- By Title - Type in the first few words of the book title in quotations. For example: "after hitler before stalin".
- By Author - Type in the last name followed by the first name of the author in quotations. For example: "jonas raymond"
Starting Points: Journal Articles
The following research databases will help you identify articles on European history. Additional research databases are listed under Articles.
Historical Abstracts with Full Text This link opens in a new window
Best database to articles written on modern world history (Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe & Latin America from 1450 onward)
International Medieval Bibliography This link opens in a new window
Best database for identifying articles & book chapters on all aspects of Medieval Europe, 300-1500
JSTOR This link opens in a new window
Scholarly journals & books in all disciplines
Starting Points - Primary Sources
This is a small sampling of primary sources dealing with Europe. Additional sources are listed under the various Primary Sources sections of this guide.