1. Search for articles describing what you are studying in your protocol.
2. Search for articles discussing improved models and/or potential alternatives to painful or distressful procedures.
3. Combine the two searches with AND.
Search for humane treatment of rats being restrained for blood draws.
Search #1 concepts: rats and blood draws.
(rat OR rats OR rattus) AND ("blood draw" OR "blood collection" OR "blood sampling" OR "blood sample" OR "blood specimen")
Search #2 concepts: restraint procedures or animal distress
restrain* OR immobiliz* OR immobilis* OR restrict* OR distress* OR handling OR humane
Combine the two searches using AND.
(rat OR rats OR rattus) AND ("blood draw" OR "blood collection" OR "blood sampling" OR "blood sample" OR "blood specimen") AND (restrain* OR immobiliz* OR immobilis* OR restrict* OR distress* OR handling OR humane)
✽In PubMed, go to the Advanced search page to combine the two searches.
✽You can also type #1 AND #2 to combine search #1 AND search #2.
animal model or experimental design
sample size or statistical design
assay or technique or method or procedure
non-invasive or noninvasive
imaging or MRI or tomography or ultrasound
telemetry or monitoring device
biomarker or biological marker
well-being or welfare
humane treatment or humane endpoint
housing, caging, cages, facility
environmental enrichment, animal training, positive reinforcement