|AND||Retrieves items that contain both terms. Good for combining topics to narrow a search.||retina AND regeneration|
|OR||Retrieves items that contain at least one of the terms. Expand a search by allowing for synonyms.||regeneration OR regrowth|
|*||Retrieves word variants, such as regenerate, regeneration, regenerated||regenerat*|
|" "||Retrieves the exact phrase contained by the quotation marks.||"retinal neuron"|
|( )||Tells search system how to combine terms and in which order.
Article needs to mention "retina" and EITHER regenerat* OR regrow*.
|retina AND (regenerat* OR regrow*)|
Example in Web of Science. Looking for alternatives to a skin sensitivity assay on live animals.
Search #1 - protocol concepts:
(skin OR dermal) AND (sensitiv* OR sensitiz* OR sensitis*) AND (assay* OR model*)
Search #2 - possible alternatives:
(simulat* OR silico OR artificial* OR digital* OR virtual* OR cadaver* OR “non animal” OR “in vitro”)
Combine the two searches with AND.
Database filters help you narrow your search.
Most databases permit filtering by:
Filter options are typically on the left side of the search results screen.
In Web of Science and Embase, use NEAR to require that two words appear within a few words of each other in the title or abstract. Specify how close they should be using the format NEAR/#.
(lung OR pulmonary) NEAR/3 fibrosis
Web of Science example:
TS=((lung OR pulmonary) NEAR/3 fibrosis)