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*Cite and Analyze Business Information: Cite Online Sources in APA Format

Citing and Analyzing Information tools for business students.

Journal Articles from Online Databases

Basic Citation Format for Journal Articles from Databases:

Author, A., & Author, B. (Date). Article title. Periodical Title, volume(issue), pages.* Retrieved from database name. 

*If online articles do not give page numbers, you will not be able to include them in your citation. 

Citation Examples with author:

Cho, A., & Newcomb, T. (2014). DOTs are gaining "Complete Streets" smarts. ENR: Engineering News-Record, 282(11), 36.  Retrieved from: Business Source Complete database.

Intext citation:  (Cho & Newcomb, 2014)

Citation Example with no author:

Fatal distraction. (2013, Nov 30). The Economist, 409(8864), n/a. Retrieved from Proquest database.

Intext citation:  (Fatal distraction, 2013)

Articles from a Journal's website

Basic Citation Format for Articles from a Journal's Website:

Author, A., Author, B., & Author, C. (Year). Article title. Periodical Title, volume(issue), pages. doi: xx.xxxxxxxxxx*


About Digital Object Identifier (DOI): A doi is a unique number publishers sometimes assign to journal articles. Providing a doi in the citation makes it easier for readers to find an online version of the work being cited. However, do not worry if you cannot find it on the article since many articles do not have a doi.

*If DOI is not available, give the exact URL or the home page URL for the journal, newsletter, or magazine in the reference. Use format:
Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxxx

Examples with DOI:

Ye, Y., Yin, J., & Xu, Y. (2014, Jan 15). Social network supported process recommender system. ScientificWorldJournal. doi:10.1155/2014/349065

Intext citation: (Ye, Yin, & Xu, 2014)

Examples without DOI :

Weise, K. (2014, April 8). The Government Knows if You'll Pay Taxes Early or Wait Until the Last Minute. Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Retrieved from

Intext citation:  (Weise, 2014)

Newspaper Articles and News Wires from Databases

Citation Example for Newspaper Articles or Newswires from Databases:

Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis database.

Intext citation:  (Brody, 2007)

NOTE: There may not be a page number


Entire Website:

Citation Format:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. Page title. Website title. Retrieved Date, from http://Web address

Citation Example:

Federal Consumer Information Center. Retrieved October 27, 2014, from

Specific Document on a Website:

These citations often follow a similar format to print sources when possible.

Citation Examples:

Federal Trade Commission. (2014, March 27). FTC proposes changes to fuel rating rule [Press Release].  Retrieved from

Intext citation:  (Federal Trade Commission, 2014)

Brown, Abram. (2014, March 3). Forbes billionaires: Full list of the richest Americans. Retrieved April 28 2014, from

Intext citation: (Brown, 2014)

Nike, Inc. (2013).  2013 Annual Report. Retrieved from

Intext citation:  (Nike, Inc., 2013)

- When refering to the company website for multiple documents,
identify each document in the text of the paper or the intext citation, e.g., (Nike, Inc., 2013 Annual Report), as well as in the bibliography separately.

- Retrieval Date is ONLY NEEDED when content is changeable or can be updated (e.g., company profile). Therefore, journal, newsletter, newspaper, magazine articles and books do not need retrieval dates.

- If no date is given on the website, use [n.d.], which stands for "no date."

Blogs, Discussion Forums, & Newsgroups

For information retrieved from blogs (referred to as weblogs), discussion forums, newsgroups weblog posts or weblog comment:

Basic Citation Format:

Author, A.A. (year, month day). Title of posted item [description of form]. Retrieved from URL.


  • Do not italicize title
  • if no author name, use screen name, if no screen name, use the title
  • blog is referred to as a weblog 
  • try to use a permanent link (aka permalink), if available

Citation Example of Online forum comment:

Losing_hair (2010, October 19). Re: How do I get more traffic on my website?
[online forum comment]. Retrieved from

Intext citation: (Losing_hair, 2010)

Citation Example of Weblog (blog) post:

Ritholtz, B. (2010, October 20). Darwin's law of maladaptive corporate behavior (or, why bailouts are nearly always a terrible idea) [weblog post]. Retrieved from

Intext citation:  (Ritholtz, 2010)

Citation Example of Weblog (blog) comment:

Cherub96. (2010, October 20). Re: Darwin's law of maladaptive corporate behavior (or, why bailouts are nearly always a terrible idea) [weblog comment]. Retrieved from

Intext citation:  (Cherub96, 2010)

Podcasts & Video Logs

Use format below to cite information retrieved from podcasts and video logs:

Producer, A. (Producer). (year, month day). Title [Audio podcast or Video File]. Retrieved from URL.

  • If the producer is not specified, use the show name (i.e. Money, Markets & More), or if not a show, use the host name/screen name
  • Try to use a permanent/persistent link (aka permalink), if available

Citation Example of Podcast using the host's name:

Magrid, L. (2010, July 21). Flipboard CEO on his iPad 'social magazine (podcast)' [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from

Intext citation:  (Magrid, 2010)

Citation Example of Video Log using the screen name:

Moneyandmarkets. (2010, October 22). Money and markets-quantitative easing, part I [Video file]. Retrieved from

Intext citation:  (Moneyandmarkets, 2010)

Case Studies

Citation Examples with author:

Gino, F. (2013). Fighting a Government Threat. Harvard Business Review, 91(3), 123-127. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.

Intext citation: (Gino, 2013)

Citation Examples with two or more authors:

Ericson, T.J. Alsop, R., Nicholson, P., & Miller, J. (2009). Gen Y in the workplace. Harvard Business Review, 87(2), 43-49. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.

Intext citation: (Ericson, Alsop, Nicholson & Miller, 2009)

Personal Communications & Recorded Interviews

Personal Communications (e.g., interviews, emails):

When personal communications such as interviews or emails are not recoverable by readers, they are not included in the references unless the instructor requires it. However, they must be cited intext. For more information, see APA style manual (6th edition) p. 179 and pp. 213-215.

Recorded Interviews (e.g., audio or video) :

Citation Example:

Nordstrom, E. (2014, March 20). UW Bothell Icons of Retail Conversation with Erik Nordstrom. (Spector R., Interviewer) [Video]. Retrieved from

NOTE:  Interviews in publications are cited according to the print or online journal format.

NOTE: If you have questions, please
(1) check with the UWB Writing and Communication Center or
(2) consult the APA website 


Online Abstract

Basic Citation Format:

Author, A. & Author, B. (Date). Article Title. Periodical Title, volume (issue), pages. Abstract retrieved from


If you are unable to obtain the full article, instructors may allow use of information from an abstract; however, the citation must indicate the information came from an abstract.  Information from abstracts should not be used for material being published.

Example of Abstract from a Database:

Mehra, A. & Floyd, S.W. (1998, July-August). Product market heterogeneity, resource imitability and strategic group formation. Journal of Management, 24(4), 511-512. Abstract retrieved from Expanded Academic ASAP database.

Intext Citation: (Mehra & Floyd, 1998)

Example of Abstract from Web:

Lassen, S.R., Steele, M.M., & Sailor, W. (2006). the relationship of school-wide positive behavior support to academic in an urban middle school. Pschology in the Schools, 43, 701-712. Abstract retrieved from

Financial Reports

Basic Citation Format for Financial Reports:

Author. (Date). Document title. Retrieved from  (File Name and number--if available--and any other information needed to trace the report)

Citation Examples from a Database:

When the company is the author:

General Electric Co. (2009). SEC Form 10-K for the Year Ended December 31, 2009. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis Academic database.

Intext citation: (General Electric Co., 2008)

Twitter, Inc. (2014). SEC Form 10-K for the Year Ended December 31, 2013. Retrieved SEC EDGAR website

Intext citation: (Twitter, 2014)

When the company is not the author:

Disclosure Incorporated. (2009). International Business Machines: Disclosure report. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis database. (Disclosure Company Number: I510600000 )

Intext citation:  (Disclosure Incorporated, 2009)

Citation Example from a Free Web Site:

Texas Instruments. (2010). 2010 Annual Report to Shareholders. Retrieved from

Intext citation:  (Texas Instruments, 2010)

Company Information from Database

Citation Examples:

Standard & Poor's. (2012, October 30). Google Inc. Standard & Poor's Stock Reports. Retrieved from Standard and Poor's NetAdvantage database.

Intext citation: (Standard & Poor's, 2012)

MarketLine. (2012, August 30). Costco Wholesale Corporation: Company profile. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.

Intext citation:  (MarketLine, 2012)

Hoover's, Inc. (2009). International Business Machines: Company profile: Index.  Retrieved May 1, 2009, from Hoover's database.

Intext citation: (Hoover's, 2009)

Mergent. (2013). Nike, Inc. company details report. Retrieved February 14, 2013, from Mergent database.

Intext Citation: (Mergent, 2013)

Retrieval Date is included when the content can change or be updated such as a company profile (See Hoover's example above).  Other examples on this page have exact dates so if information changes, it will be included in a new report.

Industry/Analyst Report from Database (with author)

Citation Examples:

Green, W. J. & Longson, A. (2009, April 19). Freight transportation. Freight pulse 16: Rail pricing resilient; Trucks to face more challenges. Morgon Stanley Industry View. Retrieved from Thomson Research database.

Intext citation:  (Green & Longson,  2009)

Kaczanowska, A. (2012, June). IBISWorld Industry Report OD4302. Craft Beer Production in the US. Retrieved from IBISWorld database.

Intext citation:  (Kaczanowska,  2012)

Jewelry Manufacturing: Industry profile. (2013, September 30). Retrieved from First Research database.

Intext citation:  (Jewelry Manufacturing,  2013)

Market Reports from Databases

Citation Examples:

Buhl, L. (2009, January). U.S. market for seafood, with a focus on fresh. Rockville, MD: Packaged Facts. Retrieved from Marketresearch database.

Intext citation:  (Buhl, 2009)

SRDS Media Solutions- Market Potential Report. (2011). Like Trends Towards Healthier Fast Food [Data file]. Retrieved from SRDS media solutions database.

Intext citation: (SRDS, 2011)


Citation Example with 1 variable:

Head of household income in Seattle. Census 2009 Estimate. Retrieved from SimplyMap database (map).

 Intext citation: (Head of household income in Seattle, 2009)


Citation Example with 2 variables:

Head of household income and bacon consumption in Seattle. Census 2009 Estimate and Simmons Data 2009. Retrieved from SimplyMap database (report).

Intext citation:  (Head of household income and bacon, 2009) 


List all major variables used (i.e. income, automotive sales, etc). Identify the map or report used or referenced in the project.

Since there are two references with similar titles (Head of household...), use a longer title for the Intext Citation. The entire title is not necessary, but just enough for the reader to identify the report in the reference list.

    Sources within a Source

    Sometimes a source refers to information from another source. You must cite both sources.  Also:

    • If the information retrieved will not change, a retreival date is not necessary.
    • If a citation is given to you, make sure it complies with APA format.

    Basic Citation Format:

    Author, A., Author, B., & Author, C. (Date). Article title. Periodical Title, volume(issue), pages. Retrieved from db-name database.

    Citation Example of an article within a company profile database:  

    Epperson, L. (2010). Apple Incorporated: Products and Operations. Retrieved April 14, 2011 from Hoover's database.

    Intext citation:  (Epperson, 2010)

    Citation Example of an analyst report retrieved from a database:  

    Norris, M., Pawlowski, W. (2010, July 1). Business of consumer book publishing, 62-63. Simba Information. Retrieved from MarketResearch database.

    Intext citation:  (Norris & Pawlowski, 2010)

    Euromonitor International. (2014, March 25). Packaged Food in Singapore. Retrieved from Euromonitor Passport GMID database.

    Intext citation:  (Euromonitor International, 2014)

    Citation Example of a retrieved item with multiple information sources listed:

     SPINScan. (2010, April). Organic food market, 2009. Grocery Headquarters, 147. Retrieved from Market Share Reporter database.

    Intext citation: (SPINSscan, 2010)

    Kennedy, A. (2011). A near-purr-fect PL market. Private Label Buyer, 25(9), 36-37. Retrieved February 2, 2013, from RDS TableBase database.

    Intext citation:  (Kennedy, 2011)

    NOTE:  In this case, SPINSscan is the author, Grocery Headquarters is the periodical. You do not need to cite Gale, Cengage Learning because it is an intermediary.  No retrieval date is needed because it is a published article that can't be modified.


    e-books from an e-book provider (database such as Gale):

    Basic Citation Format:

    Editor, A. (Date). Book title. Location: Publisher. Retrieved from <E-book Provider/Platform>.

    Intext citation: (Author or Editor last name, Date) 

    Citation Examples:

    Kolb, R. (Ed.). (2008). Encyclopedia of business, ethics and society. Los Angeles: Sage Publications. Retrieved from Gale Virtual Reference Library.

    e-books on the free Web:

    General Citation Format:

    Author, A. (Date). Book Title. <DOI or Available from URL>

    Citation Examples:

    Weathington, B. L., Cunningham, C. J. L., & Pittenger, D. J. (2012). Understanding business research. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons. doi: 10.1002/9781118342978. 

    Intext citation:  (Weathington, Cunningham, & Pittenger, 2012)

    Huxley, A. (1958, 2000 electronic edition). Brave new world revisited. New York: Rosetta Books. Electronic edition available from

    Intext citation:  (Huxley, 1958, 2000)

    Example of Work Cited in Another Work:

    Boxall, P. & Purcell, J. (2008). Strategy and human resource management. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. In Budhwar, P. S. & Bhatnagar, J. (Eds). (2009). The changing face of people managment in India. (p. 162). New York: Routledge. Available from EBL E-book Library.

    Intext citation:  (Boxall & Purcell, 2008)

    Citing a Chapter of an e-book:

    Citation Format:

    Author, A.A., & Author B.B. (Date). Title of chapter. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book ( City, State_Abbreviation:Publisher. Retrieved from Resource_Name/URL.

    Citation Example:

    Anicama, C. (2011). Business responsibilities and human rights in Latin America: Lessons and inspiration for the future. In K. Bhuman, L. Roseberry, & M. Morsing (Eds.), Corporate social and human rights responsibilities (pp.185-201). New York, NY:Palgrave Macmillan. Retrieved from EBL database.

    Intext citation:  (Anicama, 2011)