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*Cite and Analyze Business Information: Cite Online Sources in APA Format


  • This guide reflects the most current version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7, published October 2019). 
  • The citation examples on this guide are for electronic sources only. For tips on print materials, see Purdue University's Online Writing Lab for APA guidelines.
  • APA 7 no longer requires the use of "Retrieved from" in front of URLs or DOIs, unless the resource is unarchived. Citations for unarchived materials should include a retrieval date to indicate that the version of the work cited may be different than what was originally used. 

Journal Articles

Basic format for a journal article in an electronic journal (or from a database)
Author, A.A., & Author, B.B. (Year). Article title. Periodical Title, volume number(issue number), pages. 

Notes about DOIs and URLs:

  • If the article is assigned a DOI (digital object indicator), include it after the page numbers of the article.
  • If the online scholarly article is published on a website and no DOI is assigned, indicate the URL of the website you retrieved the article from.
  • If the online scholarly article is published in a database and no DOI is assigned, do not include a URL or any database information. 

Citation example:
Hendrikx, A., & Castro, D. (2022). Netflix’s community relationship management: An analysis of its Facebook-USA page. Journal of Media Business Studies19(2), 108–125.
Intext citation:  (Hendrikx & Castro, 2022

Webpage or Piece of Online Content

Formats With or Without an Author:
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year, Month Date). Title of page. Site Name. URL

Group or Organization Name. (Year, Month Date). Title of page. Site Name. URL

Citation Examples:
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. (2018, September 5). Using EDGAR to research investments. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.
Intext citation:  (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, 2018)

Federal Trade Commission. (2014, March 27). FTC proposes changes to fuel rating rule [Press Release]. Federal Trade Commission.
Intext citation:  (Federal Trade Commission, 2014)

Brown, A. (2014, March 3). Forbes billionaires: Full list of the richest Americans.
Intext citation: (Brown, 2014)


  • If no date is given on the website, use [n.d.], which stands for "no date."

Online News Articles

Basic Format:
Author, A.A. (Year, Month Date). Title of article. Title of Publication. URL

Citation Example:
Scheiber, N. (2023, August 16). From Detroit to Hollywood, New union leaders take a harder line. The New York Times.  
Intext citation:  (Scheiber, 2023)

Case Studies

  • If the business case is published in a journal, follow the guidelines for journal article citations.
  • If the business case is published as a case document, include the publisher name and a DOI or URL.

Citation example for a case study published in an academic article or journal (such as in Harvard Business Review):
Gino, F., Klesyk, A., & Hartman, M. (2013). Fighting a government threat. Harvard Business Review, 91(3), 123-127. 
Intext citation: (Gino, Klesyk & Hartman, 2013)

Citation example for a case study published as a business case document (such as in Sage Business Cases):
Kimball, D. C., (2016). Corporate social responsibility at Starbucks: 2016–2017 issues for discussion. In Sage Business Cases. SAGE Publications, Ltd.,
Intext citation: (Kimball, 2016)

Blogs, Discussion Forums, & Newsgroups

Basic Format:
Author, A.A. (Year, Month Date). Title of posted item. Publisher Name. URL


  • If no author name, use screen name, if no screen name, use the title.
  • Try to use a permanent link (aka permalink), if available.

Citation example of blog post:
Ritholtz, B. (2010, October 20). Darwin's law of maladaptive corporate behavior (or, why bailouts are nearly always a terrible idea). The Big Picture.
Intext citation:
(Ritholtz, 2010)

Citation example of blog comment:
Cherub96. (2010, October 20). Re: Darwin's law of maladaptive corporate behavior (or, why bailouts are nearly always a terrible idea) [Blog Comment]. The Big Picture.
Intext citation: (Cherub96, 2010)


Basic Format:
Host, A. (Host). (Year, Month Date). Title of episode (No. if provided). [Audio podcast episode]. In Name of Podcast. Publisher Name. URL

Citation Example of Podcast using the host's name:
Beard, A. (Host). (2023, July 18). In defense of middle management (923). [Audio podcast episode]. In HBR IdeaCast. Harvard Business Review.
Intext citation:  (Beard, 2018)

Emails and Interviews

Personal Communications (e.g., interviews, emails):
When personal communications such as interviews or emails are not recoverable by readers, they are not included in the references unless the instructor requires it. However, they must be cited intext.

Recorded Interviews (e.g., audio or video) Citation Example:
UW Bothell. (2014, March 20). UW Bothell Icons of Retail Conversation with Erik Nordstrom [Video]. YouTube.

Citation for an interview from a journal or magazine:
Published interviews are cited according to the print or online journal format.

If you have questions:

Online Abstract

Basic Format:
Author, A., & Author, B. (Year). Article title [Abstract]. Periodical Title, volume (issue), pages. 

If you are unable to obtain the full article, instructors may allow use of information from an abstract; however, the citation must indicate the information came from an abstract. Include "[Abstract]" after the article or source name, as shown in the citation format example above.
Information from abstracts should not be used for material being published.

Example Citation for an Abstract:
Mehra, A., & Floyd, S.W. (1998, July-August). Product market heterogeneity, resource imitability and strategic group formation [Abstract]. Journal of Management, 24(4), 511-512. 
Intext Citation: (Mehra & Floyd, 1998)


Company, Industry, Market, and Financial Reports

Basic formats for company, industry, marketing, and financial reports:

Author, A.A., & Author, B.B. (Year, Month Date). Title of report. Publisher Name. DOI or URL 

Name of Group. (Year, Month Date). Title of report. Publisher Name. DOI or URL 

For school assignments:

  • When citing reports found in a database, list the DOI (if there is one) but do not list the URL. 
  • When citing reports found on a free website (such as a company website), list the URL at the end of the citation.

Reporting the database name is not standard procedure for published articles and reports.

Company report

Citation examples:
MarketLine. (2023). Costco wholesale corporation MarketLine company profile. MarketLine. 
Intext citation: (MarketLine, 2023)

D&B Hoover's, Inc. (2009). International Business Machines: company profile: Index. D&B Hoover's.
Intext citation: (D&B Hoover's, 2009)

Mergent. (2013). Nike, Inc. company details report. MergentOnline.
Intext citation: (Mergent, 2013)

Industry reports

Citation Example:
Kaczanowska, A. (2012, June). IBISWorld industry report OD4302. Craft beer production in the US. IBISWorld. 
Intext citation:  (Kaczanowska, 2012)

Market reports

Citation Example:
Mintel. (2023). Cannabis retail: Positioning and marketing US, 2023. Mintel Group Ltd. 
Intext citation:  (Mintel, 2023)

Financial reports

When citing financial reports, following the report title, include any file name or number (if available) and any other identifying information needed to trace the report.

Citation Examples:
General Electric Company. (2011). United States Securities and Exchange Commission form 10-K for the fiscal year ended 2010.  U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. 
Intext citation: (General Electric Company, 2011)

Texas Instruments. (2010). 2010 annual report to shareholders. Texas Instruments.
Intext citation: (Texas Instruments, 2010)

SimplyAnalytics Data

For more in-depth details about citing SimplyAnalytics, including screenshots showing how to retrieve citation data, see the SimplyAnalytics user guide.

Basic format:
Variable One With Year, Variable Two With Year, and Variable Three With Year. Data Source. SimplyAnalytics.

Citation example with one variable:
Median Household Income 2020. US Census Bureau American Community Survey. Census 2009 Estimate. SimplyAnalytics.
Intext citation: (Median Household Income, 2020)

Citation example with two variables:
Make of Vehicle- Most Recently Acquired- Toyota 2019 and Gasoline Household Average 2020. SimmonsLOCAL and SimplyAnalytics Consumer Expenditure Estimates. SimplyAnalytics.
Intext citation: (Make of Vehicle-Toyota 2019 and Gasoline Household Average 2020)

NOTE: List all major variables used (i.e. income, automotive sales, etc). 


General formats for eBooks

Basic Formats:
Author, A.A. (Year). Book title. Publisher Name. URL
Author, A.A. (Year). Book title [eBook edition]. Publisher Name. URL
Author, A.A. (Year). Book title (N. Narrator, Narr). [Audiobook]. Publisher Name. URL 

APA 7 does not require you to note that you have used an eBook if the content is the same as a physical book. As such, if the eBook is retrieved from a database, it is not always necessary to include the database URL in the citation. If an eBook is fond on the free Web, include a URL or DOI.

Citation Example:
Kolb, R.W. (Ed.). (2008). Encyclopedia of business, ethics and society. SAGE Publications. 
Intext citation: (Kolb, 2008)

eBooks on the free Web

Basic Format:
Author, A.A. (Year). Book Title. Publisher Name. DOI or URL

Citation Example:
Weathington, B. L., Cunningham, C. J. L., & Pittenger, D. J. (2012). Understanding business research. John Wiley & Sons. doi: 10.1002/9781118342978. 
Intext citation: (Weathington, Cunningham, & Pittenger 2012)

eBook chapter

Citation Format:
Author, A.A., & Author B.B. (Year). Title of chapter. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book ( Publisher. .

Citation Example:
Anicama, C. (2011). Business responsibilities and human rights in Latin America: Lessons and inspiration for the future. In K. Bhuman, L. Roseberry, & M. Morsing (Eds.), Corporate social and human rights responsibilities (pp.185-201). Palgrave Macmillan.
Intext citation: (Anicama, 2011)

Example of Work Cited in Another Work

Boxall, P. & Purcell, J. (2008). Strategy and human resource management. Palgrave Macmillan. In Budhwar, P. S. & Bhatnagar, J. (Eds). (2009). The changing face of people management in India. (p. 162). Routledge. 
Intext citation: (Boxall & Purcell, 2008)